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What is an IDE
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software suite that consolidates the basic tools developers need to write and test software. Typically, an IDE contains a code editor, a compiler or interpreter and a debugger that the developer accesses through a single graphical user interface (GUI). — techtarget.com
What is a Bash Script?
In computer programming, a script is a program or sequence of instructions that is interpreted or carried out by another program rather than by the computer processor (as a compiled program is). — searchenterpriselinux.techtarget.com
So basically, a bash script is a file in Linux that can be used to automate a list of commands that you normally execute in a specific order. In a bash script, bash is the scripting language we are using. Bash is short for Bourne Again Shell and comes pre-installed on most Linux machines. A bash script can be written in any text editor, and usually saved with a file extension of
.sh, however the
.sh file extension is optional.
We can use a Bash script to simplify repetitive tasks. For example, to change the WiFi card’s MAC address using the “macchanger” utility (built into Kali Linux) we run the following commands:
ifconfig wlan0 down
macchanger --mac 00:11:22:33:44:55 wlan0
ifconfig wlan0 up
Info: The above code is assuming that you are trying to change the MAC address of your wlan0 device, which in my case is my wireless network adapter. You can check your connections using
iwconfig in Terminal.
Now, it’s okay if you want to keep typing the above commands every time you want to change your mac address, however it can get annoying after a while. Wouldn’t it be easier if we could just run a simple script that could automatically run the commands shown above? The answer is, Yes. In the following article, I am going to teach you how to create a very basic Linux Bash script, without creating the infamous “hello world” script. 🙂
It is impossible to browse the internet these days without running into advertisement. However, developers spend a lot of time putting together their website, and they deserve that money, right? Right…but not when they abuse their “power”. That’s right, some developers misuse advertising and get greedy, and cover your screen with more ads than actual content and popups. Don’t you hate those pop ups? You accidentally click the wrong link and before you know it, your computer is full of popup ads!
Kali Persistent USB Setup
After recently deciding to get back into Linux, I decided to start using Kali and ditch Backtrack 5. As you all know, Kali is basically a new, debian, version of Backtrack Linux. If you haven’t already tried out Kali, a persistent USB is a perfect way to test it out. A Kali persistent USB drive will allow you to run your Linux OS off the USB drive itself, and keep track of your changes. This is great if you want to save your downloaded tools for later, or if you switch between multiple computers often. It’s actually easier than ever to create a persistent copy of Kali. I recommend a USB 3.0 flash drive with 8GB or more of space. I used a 32GB flash drive — Kali itself should take up around 3.5GB to 4GB of space. I am going to be assuming that you are currently a Windows user.
- USB 3.0 drive with at least 8GB of space
- Windows computer (some software we will use requires Windows)
Why use WPA_Supplicant Daemon?
So after finding an old Backtrack 5 R3 persistent USB drive I had created years ago, I booted it up to browse the content I had on it. Last time I used it, I was connected to a WEP encrypted network, but as we all know those offer weak protection and are slightly outdated for today. The tools and techniques to break WEP encryption have been around for a while and therefore WEP is rarely used these days. That being said, WPA encryption isn’t flawless, but a better alternative. I’m not going to discuss how to crack those here. Anyway, I figured I would share with you how to connect to a WPA encrypted network in Linux using the terminal and WPA_Supplicant daemon.
If you’re still using Backtrack 5 R3, I recommend upgrading to Kali Linux by creating a persistent USB.
Normally, we use
iwconfig to configure wireless networks. However,
iwconfig does not support WPA/WPA2 encryption. We have to use the “WPA_Supplicant Daemon” to connect to a WPA encrypted network.
Wpa_supplicant comes pre-installed in most Linux distros (including Backtrack 5 R3, Kali Linux and Ubuntu). Since Backtrack 5 R3 is outdated, it is configured to make connecting to WEP encrypted networks easily,